WHICH INDIAN METROPOLITAN CITY POSES HIGHEST HUMAN HEALTH RISK FROM AMBIENT PM2.5?Dikshant and Lovleen Gupta
Ambient particulate matter size 2.5Î¼m or less can cause far-reaching health effects in humans. Indian cities routinely experience much higher PM2.5 concentrations than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards and World Health Organization standards throughout the year.The objective of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term health effects of PM2.5 in Indian metropolitan cities namely Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai for the years 2019 and 2020. The years are chosen to evaluate whether the COVID-induced lockdown had any effect on the mortalities and morbidities associated with ambient PM2.5. Health risks were assessed using WHOâs AirQ+ v2.0 software.All-cause (natural) mortality (ACNM) and mortality from acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC), cerebrovascular disease (Stroke), and all-cause morbidity natural (ACM) and morbidity from cardiovascular disease(CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) were assessed. The excess number of long-term and short-term effects cases were found to be highest in Delhi for both years, which is 31592and 28688 for ACNM, 284 and 271 for ALRI, 2825 and 2674 for COPD, 3541 and 3309 for LC, 11525 and 11101 for IHD, 11082 and 10557 for Stroke and 28704 and 24643 for ACM, 1153 and 983 for CVD, 6858 and 5862 for RD for 2019 and 2020 respectively.Delhi is the metropolitan city that poses the highest human health risk from ambient PM2.5.