PHYCOREMEDIATION OF DYES: AN OVERVIEW ON MECHANISM, CHALLENGES, AND PROSPECTSM. Chugh and N. Bharadvaja
Dyes are major water pollutants as they show hazardous effects towards humans and aquatic environment. Various physical and chemical methods are used for the remediation of dyes but in the last few years, focus has been shifted towards the modern technique of remediation. Biological techniques have been exploited and utilized for the remediation of dyes as they are more sustainable, simple, and lead to the development of green technology. This review presents the different microalgal strains which are used for the remediation of dyes. It is seen that alone algal bioremediation of dyes is not an efficient and economical process. To overcome this challenge, a more advanced system, phyconanoremediation of dyes is also discussed briefly. Algal nanoparticles can achieve more remediation within few hours which makes this technique more efficient. Moreover, to make this more economical, a strategy to use the left-over biomass to produce valuable products like bioelectricity, pigments, biofuel and other medical products is also introduced. Later, challenges and opportunities are also discussed to make algal bioremediation more effective, sustainable, green, and clean technology.