Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol 28, Jan Suppl. Issue, 2022; Page No.(11-20)


Ameerah Khattab Madhi, Ibrahim Mahdi Salman and Raad Mahmoud Nassif Al-Khafaji


The study was conducted during the summer season of 2020 to see the quality of eighteen wells with different depths ranging from 6-25 m within three areas south of Baghdad, namely Al-Saouira, Al-Mada’in and Jisr Diyala distributed in different locations, agricultural orchards and residential villages and these wells depend mainly on groundwater and designed for various uses. Water samples were taken from wells directly by clean, sterile bottles and bimonthly sample spots, heat, acidity, turbidity, total dissolved salts and electrical conductivity were carried out in the field using field measuring devices. Color, taste and smell were examined based on the senses, while positive ions (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+, K+) and negative (Cl-, HCO3, CO3-2, SO4-2, NO3-) were measured. Total hardness was measured in the indication of magnesium and calcium ion concentrations, in the laboratory of the Department of Geology/ General Commission for Groundwater/Ministry of Water Resources, and hydro chemical formulae were identified by knowing the concentrations of ions to find out the origin of well water. Temperatures and acidity rates were 24, 7.3 respectively, which are natural proportions of groundwater characterized by moderate and stable temperature throughout the year, tending to be the light basicity of the presence of bicarbonate, which consists of melting limestone rocks and sometimes organic pollutants. As for the color, all the wells are colorless except for the wells 7 and 9 because of their proximity to the Tigris River and the filtering of part of the clay soils surrounding them, and the wells were odorless except the wells dug in orchards for grazing animals and the use of fertilizers and animal waste in agriculture as in wells 1, 2, 3 and 4 or close to the Diyala River contaminated with sewage coming from Al-Rustamiyah as in well 11. All wells have a salty taste except the wells; 7, 8, 10,17, 18 wells, as they are close to the Tigris River. The majority of wells were characterized by the high total dissolved salts and this is normal for the rise of ion concentrations in them, which in turn led to a rise in electrical conductivity. Total hardness showed that all wells were having hard water except wells; 7, 10, 17, 18 which were within the standard specifications quality set by the World Health Organization, but for positive and negative ions, they were high in most wells except wells 7, 17, 18 were within the quality for all ions and no height of nitrate ion was recorded in all the wells. While well 3 was characterized by high potassium and sulfates only and well 8 showed a rise in sulfates while the well 10 recorded increased concentration of sodium and sulfates. The vast majority of the NaCl and Na2SO4 well water type had seven wells per hydrochemical formula, three MgSO4 wells and one CaCl2 well.