FAT, POLYPHENOLS, FERMENTED AND NON-FERMENTED CACAO BEANS (THEOBROMA CACAO L.) GROWN UNDER THREE TYPES OF STAND STRUCTURE WITH THE ENGINEERING OF LIGHT DISTRIBUTION ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PRUNING MANAGEMENT IN SOPPENG REGENCY OF SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIAFatmawati, Ariffin, Setyono Yudho Tyasmoro and Roedy Soelistyono
This study was aimed to figure out total fat and polyphenols in cacao beans, fermented and non-fermented ones that grow under three types of stand structure with the engineering of enhancing the sun rays through pruning management. This study was conducted in Salaonro Village, Lilirilau Subdistrict, Soppeng Regency, South Sulawesi from March to November 2018, using a two-factor factorial design. The first factor was types of stand structure consisting of Bitti (Vitex coffasus) timber plant (N1) Gamal (Gliricidia sepium) (N2) and Teak (Tectona grandis L.) (N3). And the second factor was the time to prune, namely (P0) no pruning, (P1) once-a-month pruning, (P2) once-two-months pruning. The study results showed that the time to prune (pruning time) had different influence on the total of fat with fermentation, treatment (P2) was significantly different with (P1), however was not significantly different with (P0). Also, total fat of nonfermented cacao beans during pruning time had significantly different influence; treatment (P2) was significantly different with (P0), yet insignificantly different with (P1). It can be seen that the highest fat value was at (P2) of total fat for non-fermented cacao beans (28.96) and the lowest was at (P1) of total fat for fermented ones (20.30). Likewise, total polyphenols for fermented cacao beans demonstrated that treatment (P2) was significantly different with (P1) and (P0), however in polyphenols for fermented cacao beans, three types of stand structure exhibited significant difference, and it can be seen that (N1) was significantly different with (N2), yet not significantly different with (N3). Furthermore, it can be seen that for each treatment, the highest and the lowest total polyphenols, both for fermented and non-fermented ones, were at (P2) total polyphenols of cacao beans with the highest fermentation (0.386) and the lowest at (N2) of total polyphenols for non-fermented cacao beans was (0.252).