OPTIMIZATION AND COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY IMMOBILISED BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND BACILLUS COAGULANSR. POORNIMA AND G. PRABAKARAN
The wide applications of amylase enzymes especially in the starch processing industries and the textile industries has made it an enzyme with a high demand α amylase production was carried out with sodium alginate immobilized Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans. The organisms are non pathogenic, produce no known toxins and have a well established record of safety. The identification of amylase producing capability of these microorganisms can be easily performed by the preliminary screening technique using starch agar. Also the methods of enrichment and assay are relatively simple as described. Calcium chloride was also provided in the production medium, as the presence of calcium ions is very much necessary for the maintenance of the stability of the enzyme. The maintenance of favorable pH is very essential for amylase production. Maximum activity of the enzyme was obtained at the pH of 7. acidic conditions do not favor the production of amylase. The presence of the inducer (starch) is also a critical factor in amylase production. An inducer concentration of 0.02 to 0.03 % is generally favoured for amylase production. The inducer acts as the genetic level. A longer incubation time was found to increase the activity of the enzyme. Highest production was reported after 24 hours as compard to lesser incubation times. This could be due to secretion of the extracellular enzyme after an initial growth phase of the organism. Both the organisms, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans produced almost similar amounts of enzyme under various conditions. This also proves that Bacillus coagulans can indeed be a substitute for the widely used Bacillus subtilis.
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