Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol 21, Issue 1, 2015; Page No.(277-280)

GROUND WATER ANALYSIS OF KAPURTHALA DISTRICT (PUNJAB) IN RESPECT OF SOME PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

Maieda Mushtaq, Alia Gul, Shaista, Bhupender Sharma, Harpreet Singh and Rahul Singh

Abstract

Groundwater quality changes according to different parameters such as geology of particular area, depth of water table and composition of dissolved salts seasonal changes. Main reason for the water pollution is the discharge of untreated industrial effluents directly into the rivers and streams resulting in high level of pollution in the surface water as well as groundwater. People are more to stomach and digestive system diseases like skin problem, nail problem, diarrhea with fever and dysentery etc. which is the direct effect of polluted water used for drinking and for irrigation purposes. Due to rapid industrialization, urbanization and agricultural industries, TDS and EC values are found to be higher than desirable limit in Kapurthala. Highest TDS and values have been observed in Ahli kalan. This may be because of anthropogenic activities, leaching and agricultural activities. In Kapurthala and Ahli kalan, the value of total hardness exceeds the permissible limit. Industrialization, sewage disposal, excessive use of fertilizers and leaching may be the possible cause for hardness in these areas. In Kala sanga the concentration of free chlorine is found to be higher than the desirable limit. Among heavy metals, the concentration of copper has been found to be higher than the desirable limit in Kapurthala and Ahli kalan. Human activities, natural sources (like windblown dust, decaying vegetation, forest fires, sea sprays), agricultural and industrial activities may be the sources of higher concentration of copper in these two areas. In three different areas of Phagwara tehsil most of the Physico-Chemical parameters are within the desirable limit as prescribed by BIS except EC and total hardness in Rihaan jattan which are above the desirable limit. Higher value of EC and total hardness in this area may be due to the anthropogenic activities, agricultural activities and leaching.

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