Pollution Research Paper

Vol 33, Issue 02, 2014; Page No.(243-250)

CASSAVA MILL EFFLUENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT USING TWO BIOASSAYS AND BACTERIAL ATTRIBUTES

FAWOLE, O.O., *YEKEEN, T.A., AYANDELE, A.A., AJAYI, T.O., AINA, O.O., OMOLASO, O. AND ODEBUNMI, A.

Abstract

Impacts of cassava (Manihot esculenta) mill effluent on the nearby stream and wells as well as its toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells and rat spermatogenesis indices were evaluated. The physicochemical parameters and microbial attributes of the samples were also analyzed. The physicochemical characteristics of the cassava effluents conformed to allowable limits except few parameters including cyanide. Macroscopic evaluation revealed that mean root length obtained from 0.25, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% treated A. cepa were significantly different from the control, The EC 50 and EC 90 obtained from cassava effluent were 0.70, and 0.08%, respectively. The mitotic indices were not dose dependent but values obtained for 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% were less than half of the control. Chromosome fragments, Chromosome bridge, lagged chromosome and disturbed spindle were the aberrations observed in the Allium cepa assay. Sperm cell count and motility obtained for the treated rats was significantly different (p<0.05) from the control at 2.5, 5.0 and 10% while significant aberration were observed at all concentrations compared with the control. Most of the bacterial isolates showed multiple-drug resistance to commonly used antibiotics which might have serious health implication. Measures are needed to adequately control the release of the effluent into the water body to preserve aquatic life.

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