AN OVERVIEW OF THE ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS OF GREEN REVOLUTION IN HARYANA AND THE WAY FORWARDSurender Kumar and Rambir Singh
The agricultural sector contributes significantly to the stateâs production and employment while also playing a significant role in the structural foundation of Haryanaâs economy. Haryanaâs cropping intensity increased as a result of the adoption of new agricultural techniques, and the stateâs agriculture totally transitioned from traditional to modern agriculture. After the Green Revolution, the stateâs cropping patterns underwent serious modifications that had a significant impact on both input demand and production. The state of Haryana made significant strides in agricultural output, but at the expense of degrading the land and water resources. Due to soil degradation from overuse of groundwater and soil contamination from the use of excessive doses of fertilizers and pesticides, intensive agriculture during the Green Revolution has caused considerable concerns with land and water resources and their sustainability. The disruption of the soil balance caused by growing the same crop year after year and the constant application of chemical fertilizers have had negative effects on the soilâs organic composition. These effects resulted in a decrease in agricultural yield, a decrease in groundwater levels, a loss in soil fertility, a decrease in biological diversity, and agronomic issues such as water logging, soil salinity and alkalinity. Severe ecological problems are being caused due to inefficient farming methods and the irrational usage of agricultural inputs. Eventually, the developments during Green Revolution and the subsequent use of new agricultural methods have resulted in increased production in Haryana but at the cost of some serious ecological degradation that now presents potential risk to future sustainability unless and until it is comprehensively identified, monitored and addressed.