Pollution Research Paper

Vol 39, Issue 4, 2020; Page No.(971-979)

RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PM 10 AND PM 2.5 IN HANOI, VIETNAM: AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY

DO THI LAN CHI, VU DUC TOAN, QUACH HA LINH, VU VAN CHIEN AND VU THU HUYEN

Abstract

Particular matter is one of the main pollutants in air pollution, especially more in emerging and developing cities. In the midst of urban development, Hanoi City experienced a rapid increase in vehicles and traffic in recent years, which is believed to be the cause of particular matter concentration and air pollution. Long Bien, an Eastern district in Hanoi, is subject to increasing population and traffic, yet the lack of sufficient risk assessment of particular matter situation on health and environment is evident. This paper aims to assess current situation of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Long Bien District, Hanoi City, thus calculate health and ecological environment risk due to particular matter pollution. The data indicated although Long Bien area saw a decrease in concentration of pollutants, however the data still exceeded the permitted standard. PM10 and PM2.5’s concentration values were particularly high in October to March, and lower in April and September, which is compatible and explainable with wind and climate season in Northern part of Vietnam. PM2.5/PM10 ratio fluctuated over the years, while highest ratio was seen in 2017 (0.74). In contrary to seasonal changes, PM2.5/PM10 ratio was highest in summer time (May - 0.76) and lowest in winter time (January - 0.67). From comparison to two cities in the region, PM10, PM2.5’s concentration and PM2.5/PM10 ratio remained in average position, all figures were lower than observed in Beijing but higher than observed in Singapore. While ecological environmental in Long Bien remained in high risk throughout the observed period, health risk assessment showed population health was also at risk of morbidity and mortality due to exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 with relative risk higher than 1. The trend of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration exceeding the limits in national standard throughout the years indicated that air pollution control in Long Bien area in particular and in Hanoi city in general remains an environmental health issue. Further high risk in public health and ecological health is signal for comprehensive intervention and policies from stakeholders, while emphasizing the need for further research of particular matter in Vietnam.

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