Pollution Research Paper

Vol 39, Issue 4, 2020; Page No.(946-952)

DEFENSE STRATEGY OF MANGROVE AVICENNIA MARINA FACING HEAVY METALS (PB, CD, AND CU) POLLUTION AT MANGROVE AREA, SEMARANG AND JEPARA COASTAL WATERS, CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA: A PROSPECT TO PHYTOREMEDIATION

B. YULIANTO, W.A. WIJAYA, SUNARYO, O.K. RADJASA AND A. SOEGIANTO

Abstract

Mangroves Avicennia marina is known to absorb organic and inorganic materials, including heavy metals. This study was conducted at three estuaries (Tapak, Seringin, and Semat), situated at the Semarang and Jepara coastal waters, Central Java. This study aimed to know the capability of Avicennia marina to store heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu) in their roots and leaves, and to investigate their way to protect against metal pollutant and their prospect to be employed as Phytoremediation plant. The research was conducted in March - October 2018 in the mangrove area at the estuary of Tapak (Semarang), Seringin River (Semarang), and Semat (Jepara). The research method used was the case study method. Samples taken from the mangrove field were sediment soil, water, roots, and leaves of A. marina. Metals content analysis carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that Pb, Cd, and Cu content in roots and leaves: the highest was in the Seringin estuary (Pb: roots = 4.630 mg/kg, leaves = 2.098 mg/kg; Cd: roots = 2.307 mg/kg, leaves = 1.011 mg/kg; Cu: roots = 9.211 mg/kg, leaves = 5.895 mg/kg), and the lowest was in Semat estuary (Pb: roots = 2.993 mg/kg, leaves = 1.163 mg/kg; Cd: roots = 0.774 mg/kg, leaves = 0.268 mg/kg; Cu: roots = 4.554 mg/kg, leaves = 2.979 mg/kg), respectively. All metal concentrations accumulated in roots and leaves of A. marina were considerably lower than those in the surrounding sediment (BCF<1). The mentioned metals stored in leaves were lower than those in roots (TF<1). The BCF and TF of leaves and roots obtained for Pb, Cd, and Cu were < 1; thus, A. marina practiced defense mechanism against metals contamination by implementing an exclusion strategy.

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