CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE MEAT AND FAT OF PIGS OF VARIOUS GENOTYPESOksana Anatolyevna Krasnova, Nina Petrovna Kazantseva, Ekaterina Valerievna Hardina, Marina Ivanovna Vasilieva, Mikhail Romanovich Kudrin and Nadezhda Alekseevna Sannikova
The article presents research materials of studying chemical composition of the meat and back fat of pigs of various genotypes grown per industrial technology at the LLC Vostochny pig-breeding complex in the Zavyalovsky district of the Udmurt Republic. Samples of rib eye and back fat have been taken from the back and sides of pig carcasses of various genotypes: (Large White (LW) x Landrace (L)), (LW x L) x Duroc (D), (LW x L) x Yorkshire (Y), and (LW x L x Y) x D. The youngest meat has been characterized by the lowest moisture content in the case of the (LW x L x Y) x D breed combination (73.0 %). With a decrease in the moisture content in the meat, the level of protein mass fraction has increased. The highest content of the intramuscular fat has been observed in the case of the LW x L breed combination (3.05 %). All samples of back fat both from the back and the sides have been different from the standpoint of general chemical composition. The moisture content has ranged from 5.51 % to 9.90 %, the fat content - from 86.54 % to 92.3 %, and the protein content -from 2.17 % to 3.58 %. All the samples of back fat from the four experimental groups have met the regulatory requirements for the mass fraction of fat (back fat according to GOST R 55485-2013: fat content should not exceed 93.0 %; protein content should be no less than 1.0 %). The samples of mid-back fat from the ((LW x L) x D; (LW x L) x Y; (LW x L x Y) x D) breed combinations have met the regulatory requirements for the fat mass fraction (mid-back fat according to GOST R 55485-2013: fat content should not exceed 90.0 %; protein content should be no less than 1.0 %). The samples of mid-back fat in the case of the (LW x L) breed combination have not met the regulatory requirements for the mass fraction of fat, which has amounted to 91.55 %. The results of the studies aimed at identifying the optimal variant of pig crossing prove that the (LW x L x Y) x D breed combination in four-breed crossing can provide the best chemical composition: rib eye meat is less fatty (2.21 %) with a fairly high protein content (22.86 %); back fat has an optimal fat content and a well-developed protein carcass.