Pollution Research Paper

Vol 34, Issue 4, 2015; Page No.(657-666)

APPLICATION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE NEARSHORE COASTAL WATERS OF ACCRA, GHANA

E. NYARKO, A.M. LAMPTEY AND D.A. OWIREDU-AMANING

Abstract

The Water Quality Index (WQI) was applied to the near shore coastal waters of Accra, Ghana during the dry and wet seasons using seven water quality parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, alkalinity, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, nitrate and ammonium). The relative weight assigned to each parameter ranged from 1 to 4 based on the importance of the parameter to aquatic life. The results indicated that the water quality in the near shore coastal areas of Accra, Ghana is polluted. The impact of various anthropogenic activities was evident on some parameters such as the electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, Biochemical oxygen demand and phosphates. The WQI developed for the near shore coastal area of Accra showed that the water was polluted and therefore, unsuitable for recreation and aquatic life. It is recommended that continuous monitoring of the near shore coastal waters in Accra is necessary for effective management. Application of the WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision-makers to evaluate the water quality of coastal ecosystems.

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