ACTIVITIES AND MECHANISMS OF EUGENOL AND ESENTIAL OIL BETEL LEAF (PIPER BETLE, LINN) AGAINST SOME BACTERIAL PATHOGENSMuhammad Yanis Musdja, Ulfa Sadiah and Eka Putri
Eugenol is one of the ingredients of essential oils of betel leaf and clove pistil, essential oils of betel leaf and eugenol are used by health workers and the community against microbes. This aim of this research was to determine the activity and mechanism of inhibition of the essential oil of betel leaf that was compared to eugenol against Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella thypimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Streptococcus mutans. Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was done by using micro dilution method. MIC values of essential oil for Proteus mirabilis 9% (v/v), Proteus vulgaris 6% (v/v), Salmonella thypimurium 5% (v/v), Shigella flexneri 11% (v/v) and Streptococcus mutans more than 17% (v/v), and for eugenol was obtained MIC values for Proteus mirabilis 0.4% (v/v), Proteus vulgaris 0.5% (v/v), Salmonella thypimurium 0.2% (v/v), Shigella flexneri 0.5% (v/v) and Streptococcus mutans more 0.4% (v/v). mechanism of inhibition of the essential oil of betel leaf and eugenol could cause membrane damage that indicated with the accurrence of leakage of cellular metabolites. In this cases, could be seen with the increase leaked nucleic acid and protein from cell of bacteria that indicates an increased absorbance at wavelength of 260 nm and 280 nm by using Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer. This was reinforced by an increase in leakage ions Ca ,+and K+,with observed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometre (AAS) moreover also occurred plasmolysis on bacterial that was observed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).
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