ECOTOXICITY RISK ASSESSMENT OF SEDIMENTS FROM A STRETCH OF THE BETWA RIVER USING INDICES APPROACHRAVI SHARMA
Five heavy metals were measured seasonally in sediments from the Betwa river bed. The prevalence of these metals by mean concentration was Zinc (Zn) > Copper (Cu) > Lead (Pb) > Iron (Fe) > Cadmium (Cd). Positive correlation among Cu, Zn and Pb suggests a common origin and controlling factors. The concentration of Pb was found to be greater during the post-monsoon period while greater Cu, Zn, Cd and Fe concentrations were recorded during the pre-monsoon period. Four pollution indices, viz., the single indices enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) and the integrated index contamination degree (CD) were used to assess ecotoxicity and interpret the current contamination scenario. Betwa river sediments were moderately contaminated according to the pollution indices for these elements. Zn and Cu showed elevated concentrations while Cd showed no enrichment. The results of the water contamination will be useful for further understanding the impacts of pollution on the river linking project for different regions.
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