STUDIES ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAVY METAL CONTENTS IN DRINKING GROUNDWATER OF MOGA (PUNJAB)SUNITA RANI
The overall quality of water refers to various physico- chemical and biological parameters. The present study analyses the quality of drinking groundwater of Moga (Punjab) in terms of important physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metal contents. The ground water samples were collected from different tube wells installed by Municipal Corporation, Moga at different locations of the town. The various quality parameters such as pH value, turbidity, total phosphates and nitrates were determined using standard techniques. The concentrations of major heavy metal contaminants such as Pb, Zn, As and Fe were also determined using high resolution inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major physico-chemical parameters of drinking groundwater were within the permissible limits but total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity,total hardness and magnesium content were above the safe limits set by WHO. The average concentrations of Pb, Zn, As and Fe were found to be 22.87, 90.88, 1.64 and 2.39 Î¼g/kg. All the water samples were unsafe for drinking purposes as far as levels of lead were concerned. The higher concentrations of these metals may be due to various agricultural, industrial and human activities posing health hazards. A mass public awareness campaign as well as legislature needs to be initiated to regulate these activities.
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