USING MUTATION TECHNIQUE ON SHOOT APEXES OF SMALL DARK SPECKLED KIDNEY BEANS TO GET ON COLD TOLERANT BREEDMUNDHER KH. JABBAR AND ZEYAD H. AL-FATLAWI
Two experiments were conducted in institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology of higher studies â university of Baghdad and college of sciences âuniversity of Babylon, the second experiment was conducted in open greenhouse affiliated to ministry of agriculture. Ultraviolet radiation was used in three wavelengths (220,320 and 400 nm) interaction with two exposure periods (2 and 4 hours per day) by exposure apex shoots after cut and cultured in incubator. In the second experiment, first generation seeds were planted in five sowing dates in two seasons 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, atpA gene was detected as genetic parameter. The morphological parameters were : biological yield, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, seed weight and plant seed yield. The results in first season showed that D3 and D4 sowing dates were given high yield traits in both seasons while D5 sowing date was given biological yield in all seasons but it was not given pods. The atpA gene was detected from leaves at the end of the season, the gene appeared in leaves of D3 and D4 sowing dates while the gene was silent in leaves of D5 sowing date.
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