CONGENITALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN SAUDI ARABIA: A REVIEWASMA A. ALSHARIF, ENSHRAH M. RADWAN, MAWEYAH M. ALNEJADI, RAGHAD A. GHAZZAWI, RAZAN A. KALANTAN, RENAD A. BAHADI, ROZAN A. KALANTAN, SAMAHER A. ALOWAIS, SAMAHER S. ALKHEDAIDI, SHAHAD M. ALZAHRANI, SOMAYA A. KHAMMASH, WAJD W. AQEELI AND AMAL M. MAHFOZ
Congenitally transmitted diseases (CTDs) are infections caused by pathogens (such as bacteria, viruses and parasites) which transmitted directly from mother to fetus through placenta during pregnancy or during childbirth. CTDs may lead to fetal death, organ injury or limited sequel depending on the pathogen. Some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be congenitally transmitted to developing fetus. In Saudi Arabia and other Islamic countries, where homosexuality and non-marital sex are prohibited by religion there are limited data and awareness about CTDs and STDs. This review aimed to highlights the most common congenitally transmitted pathogenic infections in Saudi Arabia, which can lead to fetal growth restriction. Epidemiology, modes of transmission, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these pathogens are defined. It could be concluded that Toxoplasmosis is the most common congenitally transmitted pathogenic infection in Saudi Arabia. Community awareness regarding modes of infection and prevention is required.Appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among youth.
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