MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA) AS BIOMARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS TO PM2.5 EXPOSURE AT JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BANDUNG CITY, WEST JAVA, INDONESIATIARAIMA SISINTA, BAMBANG WISPRIYONO AND HARYOTO KUSNOPUTRANTO
Particulates Matters 2.5 (PM2.5) are particles contain microscopic solids or liquid droplets which able to be inhaled. PM2.5 is very light dust particle with diameter <2.5 m and able to penetrate to the alveolus and even pass through the respiratory barrier, and enter the circulatory system, which can spread throughout the body. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one of biomarker of oxidative stress in human. MDA is one of the lipid peroxide products which is toxic to cells and can be influenced by any agents from environment. The aim of the study is to analyze the concentration of urinary MDA in junior high school students related to PM2.5 exposure. Research has been doned by cross sectional design with systematic random sampling method. The respondents are 68 students of VIII grade junior high school. PM2.5 is measured by using HAZDUST Epam 5000 and urinary MDA levels using TBARs (Spectrophotometry) from some area in the school and MDA is measured by TBARs method from students urine and controlled by examining the urine creatinine. Other variables like age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, and consumption of supplements have been asking by questionnaires as the confounding factors. The results showed that average of MDA levels in urine were 32.26 mol/g creatinine and the average concentration of PM2.5 in all classroom areas were 29.31 g/m3. We also analyzed the average levels of PM2.5 in gate, sport field, corridor and classrooms, which has been transformed with Log 10. Based on statistical test, PM2.5 did not show any significant association between concentration of urinary MDA levels after being controlled by sex, smoking status, physical activity, and supplements (p.value=0.573). For further research, it may be interesting to explore other oxidative stress biomarker that may be playing important role in the exposure of PM2.5.
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