GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT WITH THE AID OF MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TOOLS IN KALLADA RIVER BASIN, SOUTH KERALA, INDIAV.R. ABHISHEKA AND R.B. BINOJ KUMAR
Hydrogeochemical studies were carried out in Kallada River basin (KRB) during pre-monsoon (August 2010) and post-monsoon (April 2011) season to identify the geochemical processes responsible for determining the groundwater quality. This data was subjected to correlation and multivariate statistical methods such as R-mode factor analysis and Q-mode cluster analysis, where R-mode analysis reveals the inter-relations among the variables studied, and Q-mode analysis reveals the inter-relations among the samples studied. These analyses are useful in classifying the groundwater samples and to identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Na and Cl show very good positive correlation between each other indicating origin from a common source. Total hardness bears positive correlation with Ca, Mg and HCO3 suggesting the total hardness in water samples is mainly due to the presence of the calcium and magnesium bicarbonates. R-mode factor analysis generated two and three clusters for postmonsoon and pre-monsoon season respectively. Each factor with different factor loadings indicates contribution of these factors in determining the chemical composition of groundwater in this area. The Q-mode cluster analysis produced three clusters in post-monsoon and two in pre-monsoon season between the sampling wells, reflecting the difference in water quality at different locations. Sample 1 falls in the cluster that corresponds to highly polluted site for both the seasons.
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