Pollution Research Paper

Vol 37, Issue 1, 2018; Page No.(88-96)




The problems of geo ecoprotection from the influence of bio contaminations of transport by creating and using preventive building constructions and structures are considered. At present, in building activity, the constructions and structures are used, the nature of which forecasts their geoecoprotective properties for application in preventive protection, as well as for liquidation and localisation of spills of organic substances, for instance oil products. Building systems with low average density or containing inclusions of special substances belong to them in the first place. Such systems, on the one hand, can serve as absorbents of bio contaminations spillages, their localisation and liquidation, providing protection of the lithosphere against contaminations penetration; on the other hand, building structures are used in the large system scope with inclusions of special substances, known as antiseptics, which can provide geo constructions with antiseptic protection. The main objective of the research consists in detection of geo-ecological protective properties of building systems and constructions, protecting from some bio contaminations, their assessment and development of the methods of geo ecoprotection of soils and grounds on their bases. The methodology of the research includes determination of the capacities of porous building systems of different densities by the method of their immersion and calculation of the mass of absorbed bio contaminations, as well as the study of antiseptic properties of chlorite-containing crushed stone by determining the total microbial number of the overland flow when using it. The main results of the research include provisions that porous mineral building systems possess blocking properties, protecting against the influence of some bio contaminations of railway transport, which allows using them in special preventive building constructions for geo ecoprotection of soils and grounds. It was proposed to characterise such properties by the following parameters: absorption capacity by mass (Aam), kg/kg and absorption capacity by volume (Aav), m3/m3, and retaining capacity by mass (Arm), kg/kg and retaining capacity by volume (Arv), m3/m3, absorption rate (Va), m3/year, specific value of contamination localisation area (S), m2/m3. Techniques, including formulas for calculation of necessary geoecoprotective parameters of special building constructions in the form of preventive screens, possessing blocking properties, were suggested. Geo-ecological protective parameters include: consumption of the mineral building system by volume (Qv), m3 and by mass (Qm), kg, screen depth (h), m, absorption time (รด), min, and localization area (Sloc), m2. It was demonstrated that the mineral porous building system can be chosen by the quality factor of the obtained geoecoprotection, which is calculated, taking into account geoecoprotective, technical and operational aspects, and is in the range from 0.5 to 0.6 of conventional units. It was shown that the building system in the form of a railway embankment with chlorite-containing crushed stone reduces the total microbial number (TMN) of the sample by 98%, which allows relating such construction to special preventive building constructions with geoantiseptic properties, implementing geoecoprotection of soils and grounds. Detected blocking and geoantiseptic properties of mineral building systems are a basis for creating preventive geoecoprotective building constructions and buildings, intended for geoecoprotection of soils and grounds.

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