VERTICAL PROFILE OF HEAVY METALS IN MANGROVE AND LAGOON SEDIMENT CORES OF SUNGAI KILIM, LANGKAWI, MALAYSIANUR SAKINAH ABDUL RAZAK, HASRIZAL SHAARI, MOHD LOKMAN HUSAIN, FATIN IZZATI MINHAT AND MUHAMMAD FATHI MOHD AZMI
Two sediment cores (LKC1 and LKC2) were retrieved from Sungai Kilim, Langkawi to determine the concentration and vertical profile of selected heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Fe and Al). Heavy metals content were analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The mean concentration of heavy metals in cores LKC1 and LKC2 showed a descending order as follows: Al > Fe >Mn> Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Co > Cd and Fe > Al >Mn> Zn >Pb> Ni > Cu > Co > Cd. Generally, LKC 1 showed a similar trend where the increment concentrations of metals from bottom towards surface. Meanwhile, a more fluctuated trend of metals in LKC2 might be the result from changes in the accumulation process of metal over time. Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were applied to assess the pollution status of metals in sediment cores. The EF values for both cores suggested that Fe, Cu, Co, Zn, Ni, Cd and Mn can be classified into the class of deficiency to minimal enrichment. Lead is the only metal that fell into the moderate enrichment (LKC1) and significant enrichment (LKC2) category. The Igeo values also showed that Pb in both cores was close to the class 1 compared to other metals. This suggested lead could have been enriched by anthropogenic sources. However, the sum of metals PLI confirmed that there was no serious occurrence of heavy metal pollution in Sungai Kilim. Hence, continuous monitoring is needed to ensure this area remains pristine and unpolluted.
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