A REVIEW ON CONTAMINATED SOIL REMEDIATION USING NANOSCALE ZERO-VALENT IRON (NZVI)Nimita Francy and S. Shanthakumar
Nanoparticles are widely and effectively used for decontamination of pollutants like pesticides, dyes, heavy metals, fertilizers and organic matter in soil, water and aqueous media. The large surface area of the nanoparticle is the main reason which helps in decontamination. Adsorption, reduction and precipitation are some of the important properties which help in detoxification of contaminant. Nanoparticles are mainly synthesized by wet chemical method in laboratories. To synthesize environmental friendly nanoparticles, nZVI is being synthesized using green leaves. The small size of the nanoparticles initiates easy transport and hence nZVI is used for soil remediation process. Modifiers, cosolvents and dispersing agents are used to improve the efficiency of transport. Also, electro kinetic techniques are being used to enhance the transport of nanoparticles. Using catalysts such as palladium, polyelectrolyte or triblock polymer coating or by emulsified vegetable oil droplet nZVI can be modified to enhance transport of nanoparticles. This review deals with nanoremediation, synthesis of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles and transport of nanoparticles in soil. In addition, the applications and limitations of using nanoparticles in soil remediation are also highlighted.
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