HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF NORTH-EAST INDIATULIKA PAUL, DEBANJAN KUNDU, PRANITA SAIKIA MEDHI AND NAMITA BEDI
A Nosocomial Infection (NI) is acquired in a health-care facility or hospital. Such infections are not incubating at the time of admission. Onset of symptoms after 48 hours of admission or intubation is an indication of nosocomial infection. Immunocompromised patients due to any co-morbid illness or any underlying disease or surgery are at a higher risk of acquiring hospital-acquired infections. The risks of acquiring NI are three times higher in ICU (Intensive Care Unit) than any other departments. This epidemiological study was conducted for duration of 19 days in a tertiary care hospital on 30 patients from ICU, whose samples were processed by microbiological analysis which included culturing and gram staining to identify pus cells and morphology of microorganisms in the primary sample, conducting biochemical test to identify the microorganism upto the species level. Antibiotic susceptibility test by Kirby- Bauer method would help clinicians design an appropriate treatment for the patients. Certain relevant data like clinical history, prior antibiotic treatment and kind of attachment present (on ventilation or tracheostomy tube present) in the patients were collected to assess the pre-disposing factors, playing a role in nosocomial pneumonia. The results obtained were: age-groups from 41-60 are highly susceptible to hospital-acquired respiratory tract infections while the mean age with symptomatic and asymptomatic respiratory tract infections was found to be 48.31. The highest affected gender was males with 70% infections. In the present study, the rate of respiratory tract infection was 76 per 1000-days of ventilation. All infected patients were on ventilatory support or attached to tracheostomy tube or both. The predominant isolates in 30 patients were gram-negative bacteria with Acinetobacter baumannii leading the list due to its high resistant to antimicrobials and environment, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium. All the pathogens isolated are MDR.
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