QUALITY CONTROL OF SELECTED ANTIBIOTICS FROM BENINESE ILLICIT MARKET AND THEIR IMPACTS ON PUBLIC HEALTHBABA-MOUSSA F., BONOU J., DOUGNON TV., AHOUANDJNOU H., DOTOU-S╚GLA R., LOKO F., ABDOULAYE I., KINDE-GAZARD D. AND BABA-MOUSSA L.
Informal markets promote the proliferation of drugs in general, and antibiotics, particularly of doubtful quality and of uncertain origin, with adverse effects on consumers┬ĺ health. Most of these drugs are implicated in antibiotic treatments┬ĺ failure, which leads to increased resistance to antibiotics. The objective of this study is to highlight the poor quality of antibiotics of illicit markets and to point out their impact on populations┬ĺ health. Four antibiotics namely: amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, cloxacillin and metronidazole bought from the informal market were tested in this study. Fifteen (15) lots of each antibiotic from the illicit market were selected and subjected to the following analytical tests: macroscopic examination, for mass uniformity test, disintegration test, identification test, and determination of active ingredient content in the samples. Further analysis was carried out at the Laboratory of Bacteriology CNHU - HKM of Cotonou, aiming to evaluate the resistance of bacteria commonly isolated from various infections towards two antibiotics: amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin. Quality control results revealed, 10% and 15% of non-compliance, respectively, for macroscopic test and disintegration test, 100 % compliance for identification, 13.3% of under-dosed drugs and 16.67% of┬ľover-dosed. Bacteriological data showed a significant increase in resistance (p < 0.005) of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, beta hemolytic Streptococcus B and Enterococcus spp to ciprofloxacin isolated between 2009 and 2012. These results are in accordance with those in the literature showing that countries with high rates of illicit use of antibiotics are also those having significant evolution of antibiotic resistance. In can therefore be concluded that there is a strong correlation between the prevalence of illegal use of antibiotics and increased antibiotics resistance. Thus, the control of streetvended drugs remains a serious challenge that needs to be addressed for achieving the Millennium Development Goals in the health sector.
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