AIRBORNE FUNGI AND AFLATOXIN-PRODUCING ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS GROUP ON GAPLEK (DRIED CASSAVA) STORAGE WAREHOUSE IN GUNUNG KIDUL, YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIANOVA W. PRATIWI, ANDIKA SIDAR, LATIFAH ZAKARIA, PURNAMA DARMADJI AND ENDANG S. RAHAYU
This study aimed to determine the diversity of airborne fungi in gaplek storage in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta and to find out the presence of Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin-producing genes. Identification of fungi was performed by macroscopic, microscopic as well as molecular characteristics. In this study 109 isolates were obtained and based on the macroscopic and microscopic characteristic were identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, A. wentii, A. fumigatus, A. sydowii, Cladosporium marcocarpum, C. sphaerospermum, Eurotium herbariorum, Penicillium rugulosum, P. polonicum, P. griseofulvum, Talaromyces erythromellis and Trichoderma viride. Thirty one isolates showed reverse orange-colored colonies on media Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus Agar (AFPA), and 26 among of them had the ability to produce aflatoxin, showed the blue fluorescense in Coconut Cream Agar (CCA). Based on the β-tubulin gene sequences, 19 isolates had 99% similarity to A. flavus and 16 among of them had nor-1, aflR, and omtB gene that played a role in producing aflatoxin. On the other hand, there were 3 isolates that did not have these genes which is correlated to the absence of blue fluorosence of A. flavus as it was observed in CCA. One of the dominant fungi found in indoor airborne of gaplek warehouse in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia was A. flavus which had aflatoxigenic properties and capability of producing aflatoxin.
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