AN ECONOMICAL APPRAISAL OF SESAME CROP IN MADHYA PRADESH, INDIAA. Singh, Moni Singh, Laxmi, Ankita Pandey and R.P. Sharma
Sesame commonly known as Til, is one of the important and best edible oilseed crop of kharif season in India. Sesame is grown on 6.5 million hectare, producing over 3 million tones of seed. India, Sudan, Myanmar, and China account for 70.42 percent of world production. In India, its cultivation is mostly confined to Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. In the east (West Bengal, Orrisa and Assam both red and black seeded sesame are grown, while in Gujarat and other western states, only white seeded sesame is grown.In Central India, it is grown as rainfed kharif crop. Sesame is an important kharif oilseed in M.P. It is cultivated as on area of 2.95 lakh hectare in Madhya Pradesh in the year 2012-2013. The Government decided its minimum support price for the year 2013-2014 Rs. 4500.00 per quintal. More than 85 Percent of sesame is cultivated in 16 districts out of 50 district of M.P. Where acreage is more than four thousand hectare area in each district. A multi stage stratified random sampling technique has been used to select the district, Block, Village and the cultivators. The area under sesame crop was the highest in the district Bhind but after the year 2009-10, it was decline. The area under sesame crop was increasing slowly after the year 2011-12. But the production of sesame crop has declined. On an average the productivity of sesame crop was 5.99 quintals per hectare but in the year 2013-14, it was the lowest, i.e. 1.60 quintal per hectare. It happens due to heavy rains in the month of July and August. The crop has been destroyed. The farmers average yield is low due to non adoption of scientific method of cultivation. Farmers generally broadcast seeds, use imbalance fertilizer, seed not treated, weeding operation not done and sowing of sesame done undulating and unfertile lands. The average cost of cultivation of sesame is Rs. 10254.54 per hectare. The farmers of all categories incurred maximum expenses on land preparation, harvesting and threshing. The medium and big farmers have been expended more money than marginal and small farmers due to their expenses capacity. The average gross return of sesame cultivators was worked out to Rs. 25573.4 in sesame crops. The Net return, on an average, came to Rs. 15394.47. The input- output ratio of sesame crop was 1:2.51. In the observation of the study area, it was found that sesame is a limited of drought resistant crop but highly suitable to high rains. Disease and pests problem is not severe in this crop. The average yield is low due to non adopting of scientific method of cultivation. Farmers generally broadcast seeds, use imbalanced fertilizer, seeds not treated, weeding operations not timely done and sowing of sesame done an undulating and unfertile land. Some constraints are Low pod formation, more plant density, Incidence of phyllody disease, Imbalance use of fertilizer and 50 kg urea per hectare applied and No special market place for sesame. Farmers feel that sesame crop should be insured to safeguard farmers against climatic vagaries. And research system in the states should work on development of hardy varieties. Seed multiplication programme of sesame in the states has also been rated poor by the farmers.
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