Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol 21, Issue 3, 2015; Page No.(1389-1397)


K. Manjunatha, Sunil Shirwal,Sushilendra, Vijayakumar Palled and V. Raghavendra


Crop residue is the non-edible plant parts that are left in the field after harvest. Field residues are materials left in an agricultural field or orchard after the crop has been harvested. These residues include stalks and stubble (stems), leaves and seed pods. The residue can be ploughed directly into the ground or burned first. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India estimated that about 500 Mt of crop residue is generated every year. There is a large variability in crop residues generation and their use depending on the cropping intensity, productivity and crops grown in different states of India. Residue generation is highest in Uttar Pradesh (60 Mt) followed by Punjab (51 Mt) and Maharashtra (46 Mt). Among different crops, cereals generate 352 Mt residue followed by fibres (66 Mt), oilseed (29 Mt), pulses (13 Mt) and sugarcane (12 Mt). However, a large portion of the residues, about 140 Mt is burned in field primarily to clear the field from straw and stubble after the harvest of the preceding crop. The problem is severe in irrigated agriculture, particularly in the mechanized rice-wheat system. Good management of field residues can increase efficiency of irrigation and control of erosion. Hence, the utilization of balers for crop residue management is the need of the hour. Several researchers have designed and developed the different models of balers for residue management. This paper highlights the various parameters affecting the baling process for agricultural residues.

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