Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol 21, Issue 3, 2015; Page No.(1343-1350)

INFLUENCE OF SOIL FACTORS ON DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN HOT SUB HUMID ECO-REGION OF MIDDLE GANGETIC PLAINS OF INDIA

Avinash Rai, Amitava Rakshit, Sunit Rai, Manoj Parihar, Maneesh Kumar, S. Pal and H.B. Singh

Abstract

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the population of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi collected from the Middle Ganetic Plain Region of Vindhyan Zone and evaluate the influence of soil properties on AM fungi population. The collected soil samples were analysed for chemical and physical properties using standard methods and AM spores were isolated using the wet – sieving and decanting method. They were observed and counted under stereo zooming microscope with an external light source. Different morphotypes of spores were identified using external spore characteristics to find out spore diversity. In the rhizosphere soil, a total of 11 species AM fungi were isolated and identified, including 5 species of Glomus, 4 species of Acaulospora, and 2 species of Scutellospora. Among them, Glomus claroideum and Acaulospora laevis were the dominant species. The AM spores densities vary among locations and crops. The spore density was relatively low, with the highest observed under rice-wheat system and the lowest under a rice-mustard system. In the soils with different texture, the spore density showed a trend of Glomus > Acaulospora > Scutellospora. Soil pH value had no significant effects on the species composition of AM fungi. However, the isolation frequency, relative abundance, and importance value of Glomus and Acaulospora showed an increasing trend with increasing soil pH, while Scutellospora showed the contrary trend. In the soils with different organic matter content, the spore density of AM fungi all showed a trend of Glomus > Acaulospora > Scutellospora, while the distribution of AM fungi had no definite pattern. The spore density of AM fungi were affected by the soil available P content, but the species diversity and evenness showed an increasing trend with the increasing content of soil available P.

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