FLUORIDE REMOVAL BY CHEMICAL MODIFICATION OF PALM KERNEL SHELL-BASED ADSORBENT: A NOVEL AGRICULTURAL WASTE UTILIZATION APPROACHM.T. BASHIR, SALMIATON, A., M.M. NOUROUZI, I. AZNI, R. HARUN
Fluoride is essential for human health, but the excessive amount of fluoride in drinking water sources can cause fluorosis. Adsorption is an effective approach for defluoridation. Chemical characteristics of palm kernel shell (PKS) were optimized by hydroxyl pre-treatment followed by quaternization for adsorption of fluoride. Chemically modified palm kernel (CMPKS) showed effective adsorption property with maximum adsorption capacity of 2.35 and 2.01 mg/gat pH 6 and pH 7 respectively. Resin size was observed to be of prime importance in the biosorption process as the optimum removal efficiency with least associated waste generation was observed at a size range of 0.25-0.5 mm. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were studied along with pseudo first and second order kinetics models, as well as intraparticle diffusion. Langmuir model and pseudo second order model were observed to be a better fit for this process. Intraparticle diffusion study indicated the probability of chemisorption. SEM showed drastic changes in surface morphology with projections and porous surface. FT-IR analysis also verified the presence of hydroxyl and amine group on the bioadsorbent and consequently verified the applicability of adsorption. Regeneration process showed its long-term and economical use.
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