EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE OF POLLEN ON THE SUCCESS ANTHER CULTURE OF LOCAL UPLAND RICE VARIETIES FROM EAST KALIMANTANNURHASANAH, A.N. PRATAMA, RUSDIANSYAH AND W. SUNARYO
Genetic diversity is a main useful tool for plant genetic improvement. East Kalimantan has many local rice cultivars supplying many interesting genes which have not been explorated for rice breeding programs yet. This study was aimed to evaluate the potency of local upland rice varieties in hybrid rice breeding through another culture. The effect of genotype, four local upland rice varieties, namely Mayas Kuning, Buyung, Geragai and Serai Gunung known as superior taste cultivars, and morphological marker for polen developmental stage were evaluated in this research. The results showed that the response of all varieties was different to the anther culture, in which Geragai showed the best response with the highest anther culture efficiency, followed by Serai Gunung, Mayas and Buyung. The distance between the auricles of the flag leaf and the penultimate leaf, and spikelets position on the panicles as the morphological markers of polen developmental stage affected anther culturability. The flag leaf distance was genotype-dependent in affecting callus induction and plantlet regeneration. The flag leaf distance of 12 cm on Geragai and Serai Gunung as well as 9cm on Buyung and Mayas Kuning resulted in the highest number of callus and plantlet regeneration. The effect of spikelet position was specific for each cultivar. Spikelet at the basal part of the panicle gave the highest anther culture efficiency on Serai Gunung and Buyung. Contrary to that, anthers derived from spikelet at the top position yielded the highest anther culture efficiency on Geragai and Mayas Kuning.
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