Pollution Research Paper

Vol 33, Issue 04, 2014 ; Page No.(715-720 )

EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY OF THE BUDHI GANDAK RIVER AT KHAGARIA, BIHAR, INDIA

DIKSHA SHARMA AND SUNIL KUMAR CHOUDHARY

Abstract

The environmental quality is greatly focused on water because of its importance in maintaining the human health and health of the ecosystems. The Water Quality Index (WQI) is an arithmetic tool used to transform large water quality data into a single number which represents the water quality level for human consumption. In the present study (April 2012 to March 2013), surface water samples in summer, monsoon and winter seasons were collected at three sampling sites in the Budhi Gandak River near Khagaria for assessment of river water quality. The water quality variables analyzed for assessment of river water quality included temperature, pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS), conductivity, total hardness (TH), dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity (TA), phosphate (PO4-P), nitrate (NO3-N) and chloride (Cl¯). The results indicated that most of the physico-chemical parameters were within the WHO limits (1998) and BIS: 10500(2004-2005) for drinking water except turbidity values which exceeded (18.55- 58.37 NTU) the maximum permissible limit of Indian standards at all the three sites in all the three seasons (except site II value during winter). The seasonal water quality data showed the pH in the range of 6.9-7.3, DO in the range of 4.9-8.71 mg/L and total hardness in the range of 187.5-246.0 mg/L. A water quality index was calculated considering relative weights of 9 water quality parameters following the calculation method prescribed by Ramakrishnaiah et al., 2009 and Gebrehiwot et al., 2011. WQI were in the range of good category (63.45-87.35) in summer and winter seasons at each site and in the range of poor category in monsoon season almost at all the three sites.

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