AGRICULTURE: CAUSE, VICTIM AS WELL AS MITIGATOR OF CLIMATE CHANGEAnoop Kumar Rathore, M.K. Jhariya, Rituja Jain and Sunil Kumar
In recent years, climate change has become a debatable issue worldwide. The global mean annual temperature, as a result of GHG accumulation in the atmosphere, has increased by 0.4 0.7 ºC above that recorded at the end of the 20th century. It is projected that by the end of the 21st century rainfall will increase by 15-31%, and the IPCC has projected the temperature increase to be between 1.1 °C and 6.4 °C by the end of the 21st Century. Climate is a primary determinant of agricultural productivity. In turn, food and fiber production is essential for sustaining and enhancing human welfare. Hence, agriculture has been a major concern in the discussions on climate change. Agriculture is a victim of climate change but as well as cause of climate changes. To satisfy the food demand of growing population, farmers are clearing forest land, tilling of pasture that result in soil degradation. These activities open carbon sinks and so releases greenhouse gases. Agriculture can mitigate climate change by reducing fuel consumption, enhancing soil carbon sequestration, improving nitrogen-use efficiency and increasing ruminant digestion efficiency, minimizing CH4 emissions from rice and capturing gaseous emissions from manure and other wastes.
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