AGRONOMIC, BIOCHEMICAL, FLORA AND FAUNA ANALYSIS OF SURANGAM- A TRADITIONAL, SUSTAINABLE AGRARIAN WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM OF LATERITIC HILLOCKS OF KASARAGOD DIST OF NORTH KERALA-SOUTH INDIAM. Mini and P.M. Beebi Razeena
Present study focuses on Agronomical, biochemical, flora and faunal analysis of Surangam a traditional, sustainable agrarian water harvesting system of laterite hills of kasaragod dist of North kerala. Surangam is a horizontal tunnel dug in the slope of lateritic hills. There may be 5000 surangam present in kasaragod district. The construction of surangam are carried out by people having certain indigenous knowledge. Some special flora and fauna are taken as indicator of water where to dig the surangam. Surangam produce cold, crystalline, clear and non-polluted water (No Chemical Oxygen Demand ,chloride, fluoride and iron). Surangam constructed soil is hard, lateritic and have more iron content (2.98 mg/Kg). Flora observed nearby the surangam are Bryophytes (Pallavicinia sp), Pteridophytes, Gymnosperm (Cycas circinalis) and Angiosperms. Endangered threatened Fauna inside the surangam are Paradoxurus hermaphroditis, Varanus bengalensis, Pteropus maxima, Hystrix indica, Rana tigrina, Rana malabaricus, Polypedatus maculatus and Bufo melanosticus. Most of the people of hilly rural areas of Kasaragod dist still depend on this traditional water source where there is no public water supply. Surangam is natural erosion of water from top laterite hills need conservation.
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