Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper

Vol. 20 Issue 01, 2014; Page No.(29-36)

ALLEVIATION OF SOIL PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS FOR IMPROVED CROP PRODUCTION: A REVIEW

Navjot Singh, Buta Singh Dhillon and Parminder Singh Sandhu

Abstract

Soil degradation and the subsequent decline in crop yields are serious agricultural and economic problems. Soil degradation occurs both as nutrient depletion and structure deterioration because of reduced soil organic matter as well as increased bulk density, poor water infiltration and erosion. Current cropping system based on traditional ploughing and straw removal induce surface crusting and soil compaction which reduces infiltration rate and promote soil erosion and overall decrease in soil fertility. The major soil physical constraints found to impair soil quality and reduce crop growth includes soil crusting, soil compaction and high soil permeability. Soil compaction of agricultural land is an important form of physical degradation. The continuous use of implements years together develops a hard pan underneath which hinder the movement of water, prevents roots of many upland crops from penetration into the deeper soil layers and inhibits growth and yield of crops. Compaction has significant effects on bulk density, root length which ultimately leads to decrease in grain yield of Corn (Zea mays L.) by 14% and Soybean (Gylcine max L.) by 45 %. Negative impact of soil compaction on crop yield can often be alleviated by sub soiling. Subsoiling resulted in increase of seed cotton yield by 14 percent over no-subsoiling treatment. Controlled traffic farming has been shown to reduce soil compaction and improve soil health. Soil bulk density, pore size distribution, water content and infiltration rate changes towards a more desirable condition on the controlled traffic plots in a continuous 10 year controlled traffic experiment. Rain before emergence of the crops results in crust formation, leading to poor emergence. There is decrease in seedling emergence of cotton following crust formation due to simulated rain. Wheat straw mulch @ 6 t ha-1 used to cover the whole plot or 3 t ha-1 to cover the rows only showed a significant improvement in emergence count and rate of emergence as compared to control (crusted) treatment. Straw mulch decreases the crust strength by reducing the impact of rain drops on soil. Highly permeable coarse textured soils are characterized by low water retention capacity, excessive permeability, poor inherent fertility and prone to wind erosion. In these soils, fertilizer use efficiency is very low and nutrient loss was very high thus discouraging use of high level inputs. Compaction of highly permeable soils by six passes of 1.5 T tractor driven roller reduced water and nutrient losses, increase NO3-N content, increased moisture retention in the soil profile and reduced the irrigation requirements for crops. There is increase in mean soil bulk density from 1.55 g cm-3 to 1.79 g cm-3 and decrease in infiltration rate of soil from 5.7 cm hr-1 to 1.32 cm hr-1 with tractor wheel compaction of loamy sand soil.

Enter your contact information below to receive full paper.
Your Name :
Email:
Phone:
City:
Cost of Full Paper: Rs.75 for Indian Nationals or $20 (USD) for international subscribers.
By clicking on Request Paper you Agree to pay the above mentioned cost per paper.
  
Journal Issues
Vol 27, Issue 1, 2021
Vol 27, Feb Suppl. Issue, 2021
Vol 26, Issue 4, 2020
Vol 26, Nov Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 26, Oct Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 26, Issue 3, 2020
Vol 26, Aug Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 26, Issue 2, 2020
Vol 26, June Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 26, April Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 26, Issue 1, 2020
Vol 26, Feb Suppl. Issue, 2020
Vol 25, Issue 4 2019
Vol 25, Issue 3 2019
Vol 25, Nov Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, Sept Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, Aug Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, July Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, Issue 2 2019
Vol 25, May Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, April Suppl. Issue, 2019
Vol 25, Issue 1 2019
Vol 24, Issue 4 2018
Vol 24, Issue 3 2018
Vol 24, Issue 2 2018
Vol 24, Issue 1 2018
Vol 24, March Suppl. Issue 2018
Vol 24, Feb. Suppl. Issue 2018
Vol 23, Issue 4, 2017
Vol 23, Nov. Suppl. Issue 2017
Vol 23, Sept. Suppl. Issue 2017
Vol 23, Issue 2, 2017
Vol 23, Issue 3, 2017
Vol 23, Issue 1, 2017
Vol 23, Feb 2017 Suppl. Issue
Vol 22, Dec 2016 Suppl. Issue
Vol 22, Issue 4, 2016
Vol 22, Sept. Suppl. Issue , 2016
Vol 22, Issue 3, 2016
Vol. 22, June Suppl. Issue 2016
Vol 22, Issue 2, 2016
Vol. 22, April Suppl. Issue 2016
Vol 22, Issue 1, 2016
Vol 21, Issue 4, 2015
Vol. 21 Dec. 2015 Suppl. Issue
Vol. 21 Nov. 2015 Suppl. Issue
Vol 21, Issue 3, 2015
Vol 21, Issue 2, 2015
Vol. 21 Suppl.Issue August 2015
Vol 21.Suppl.Issue June 2015
Vol 21, Issue 1, 2015
Supplement Issue, Dec. 2014
Special Issue-2014
Vol 20, Issue 4, 2014
Vol 20, Issue 3, 2014
Vol 20, Issue 2, 2014
Vol. 20 Issue 01, 2014
Vol. 19 Issue 04, 2013
Vol. 19 Issue 03, 2013
Vol. 19, Issue 02, 2013
Vol. 19, Issue 01, 2013
Vol.18, Issue 04, 2012
Vol.18, Issue 3, 2012
Vol.18, Issue 2, 2012
Vol.18, Issue 1, 2012
Vol.17, Issue 4, 2011
Vol.17, Issue 3, 2011
Vol.17, Issue 2, 2011
Vol.17, Issue 1, 2011
Vol.16, Issue 4, 2010
Vol.16, Issue 3, 2010
Vol.16, Issue 2, 2010
Vol.16, Issue 1, 2010
Vol.15, Issue 04, 2009
Vol.15, Issue 03, 2009
Vol.15, Issue 02, 2009
Vol.15, Issue 1, 2009
Vol.14, Issue 04, 2008
Vol.14, Issue 2-3, 2008
Vol.14, Issue 2-3, 2008
Vol.14, Issue 1, 2008
Vol.14, Issue 2-3, 2008
Vol.13, Issue 04, 2007
Vol.13, Issue 2, 2007
Vol.13, Issue 1, 2007
Vol.12, Issue 4, 2006
Vol.12, Issue 3, 2006
Vol.12, Issue 2, 2006
Vol.12, Issue 1, 2006
Vol.12, Issue 01, 2006
Vol.11, Issue 3,4, 2005
Vol.11, Issue 2, 2005
Vol.11, Issue 1, 2005
Vol.10, Issue 04, 2004
Vol.10, Issue 03, 2004
Vol.10, Issue 02, 2004
Vol.10, Issue 01, 2004
Vol.09, Issue 04, 2003
Vol.09, Issue 03, 2003
Vol.09, Issue 02, 2003
Vol.08, Issue 04, 2002
Vol.08, Issue 03, 2002
Vol.08, Issue 01, 2002
Vol.07, Issue 04, 2001
Vol.07, Issue 03, 2001
Vol.07, Issue 02, 2001
Vol.07, Issue 01, 2001
Vol.06, Issue 04, 2000
Vol.06, Issue 03, 2000
Vol.06, Issue 02, 2000
Vol.06, Issue 01, 2000
Vol.05, Issue 04, 1999
Vol.05, Issue 03, 1999
Vol.05, Issue 02, 1999
Vol.05, Issue 01, 1999
Vol.04, Issue 1,2, 1998
Vol.03, Issue 3,4, 1997
Vol.03, Issue 01, 1997
Vol.02, Issue 1,2, 1996
Vol.01, Issue 14, 1995
Looking for Past Issues? Click here to get them!!