STATUS OF FLUORIDE IN THE WATERS OF UTTRAKHANDSMITA TIWARI AND R.K. PANDE
Fluoride toxicity has become a major issue all over the world. Its level in water and soil is gradually getting higher than the maximum desirable limits. The extent of fluoride contamination in water varies from 1.0 to 25 mg/L. The endemic states in India are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Punjab, Haryana, Maharastra, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi and Uttrakhand. A small concentration of less than 1.0 mg/L of fluoride (WHO, 1984) in drinking water has beneficial effects on human body to prevent dental fluorosis however, higher concentrations above 1.5mg/L causes serious dental and skeletal fluorosis. Even high concentrations above 1.5 mg/L may cause impact on vital organs and reproductive tissues as well. However, the 40 samples collected and tested for presence of Fluoride displayed a range between 1- 3mg/L. Majority of these samples showed a range from 1.5 mg/L onwards which reflects the alarming situations of Fluoride content in the ground water as well as in inland water samples, so this study is a warning to drinking water managers to see that the harmless range of fluoride is being supplied for the drinking water purposes. (1) Fluoride [as F] mg/L, max.-requirement (desirable limit )-1 mg/L. (2) Undesirable effect outside the desirable limit Fluoride may be kept as low as possible, high Fluoride may cause fluorosis. (3) Permissible limit in the absence of alternate source 1.5 mg/L.
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