Pollution Research Paper

Vol.29, Issue 4, 2010; Page No.(635-639)




New technological advances in the last 20 years tremendously reduced the capital cost and the energy consumption so that desalination projects can be considered as alternative solutions to water development. Number of installed plants world wide has increasing day by day, to more than 15,000 in 125 countries (Service, 2006), there has been a decrease in the production cost of desalinated water obtained by RO, from US$1.92 per kL at Catalina Island, California in 1990 to a low point of US$0.47 at Tuas, Singapore in 2003, but then rising again to US$1.10 at Chennai, India in 2005, (Adham, 2007). The development of high rejection (Wilf, 2005), low energy membrane products and high efficiency energy recovery devices (Stover, 2008) has made the sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology very competitive. There is no reliable statistics available on number of larger SWRO plants in India, their capacities, technologies adopted and status on these plants in India. However, rough indications are that there are few major SWRO plants operating or under construction more than 1000 membrane based small desalination plants of various capacities ranging from 20 m3/day to 10,000 m3/day. There are few thermal based desalination plants also. SWRO is a mature technology and India has a larger coastal areas and huge amount of raw sea water to set up seawater desalination plants. At global level SWRO and hybrid SWRO technologies has been studying to develop low energy and clean water requirements. India has such a large market, desalination requirement and need to research on SWRO technology to future developments.

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