EVALUATION OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION INDICES IN SOME WATER SUPPLIES IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIAJOSEPH N. AFIUKWA
A baseline study of heavy metal contamination levels in drinking water supplies has never been conducted in Ebonyi State since its creation in 1996. Fifty-two water samples comprising 30 underground water and 22 surface water were collected from nine Local Government Areas in Ebonyi State at two different seasons and analyzed for some heavy metal concentrations using Perkin Elmer A Analyst 400 Model AAS. Various pollution indices were used to evaluate some heavy metals pollution levels in public water supplies in the area. The results indicated elevated metal concentrations above the WHO guideline limits for drinking water in the order: Pb > Mn > Fe > Cr > Co > Cd > Ni for surface water and Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Fe > Cd > Ni for under groundwater samples. The pollution indices for the elevated metals decreased in the order: Pb > Mn > Cr > Fe > Co > Cd in surface water and Mn > Co > Cr > Cd in underground water. The study also indicated that surface water was significantly enriched with Pb and Mn compared with groundwater which indicated moderate enrichment with Mn. The overall pollution load index indicated a considerable heavy metals pollution of surface waters and moderately polluted underground water. Seasonal variations were however not significant (P > 0.05).
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