PRESENT SCENARIO OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF KEOLADEO NATIONAL PARK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ANTHROPOGERVIC ACTIVITIES AND THREATSM. M. Trigunayat
Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, is one of the magnificent avian habitats of the world and mega diversity area of the country. Although it occupies a small area of 29 sq. km yet supports rich avian diversity and is a unique ecosystems. Among vertebrates 50 species of fishes, 5 species of amphibians, 33 species of reptiles, over 372 species of birds and 27 species of mammals have been reported. 35 species of butterflies and a total of 372 species of angiosperm ic plants have also been reported. Its diverse habitat have shown biotransformation over past several years as evidenced by the extenirve growth and expansion of Veteveria zizanoides (Khus) in the habitat of Siberian crane.A progressive increase in the growing area of aquatic vegetation viz. Typho, Eichhrnia, Paspolum etcand weeds like Porthenium (congress grass) and Lantana together with exotic Prosopis juliflora have been noticed. Population crash of Gyps vultures have recently been reported. Population of Siberian crane, an endangered species of the world, have shown an ever decreasing trend counting only two birds in the new millennium. Analysis of the census report of Sarus crane have also revealed a declining trend over the past two decades. Mammalian fauna especially wild ungulates have not shown significant changes for last several years and seems to face competition with illegal cattle population of nearby villages in the park. Increasing pressure of population of adjoining villages and competition for common needs like water; food & fodder, fuelwood and timber etc. may serve potential threats for the sustenance and survival of this world renowned park. Loss to agriculture crops grown in the catchment area of azan dam by the birds of the park is yet another one of the growing threat as the farmers before sowing, have started dressing seeds with pesticides that cause mortality of many grainivorous birds.
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