BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND ITS APPLICATIONSSADAF AHMAD AND AHMAD ASHFAQ
Biotechnology includes a wide range of diverse technologies and they may be applied in each of the different food and agriculture sectors. It includes technologies such as gene modification (manipulation) and transfer; the use of molecular markers; development of recombinant vaccines and DNA-based methods of disease characterisation/diagnosis; in-vitro vegetative propagation of plants; embryo transfer and other reproductive technologies in animals. These techniques are effectively used to process the raw food materials produced by the crop, fishery and livestock sectors. In the food processing sector, biotechnology targets the selection and improvement of microorganisms with the objectives of improving process control, yields and efficiency as well as the quality, nutritional value, safety and consistency of bio-processed products. It also offers many ways to improve the natural flavours and colours; new production aids, such as enzymes and emulsifiers; improved starter cultures; more waste treatment options; greener manufacturing processes; more options for assessing food safety during the process; and even biodegradable plastic wrap that kills bacteria. This paper discusses the present and future applications of biotechnology which will continue to affect the food industry by providing new products, lowering costs and improving the microbial processes on which food producers have long relied.
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