ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF THE SYNTHETIC PYRETHROID DELTAMETHRIN IN MICET.A. YEKEEN, T. G. OKORIE AND A.A. BAKARE
Deltamethrin is a broad-spectrum synthetic type II pyrethroid currently use on crops and in public health application for malaria control. Its' acute and chronic effects through LD50 determination, induction of abnormal sperm morphology; and effects on haematological indices, weights and histopathology of liver, kidney and lungs using mice were evaluated. For LD50 determination, 0.5m1 of 1.5, 1.75, 2.0, 2.25 and 2.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) concentrations of deltamethrin were administered intraperitoneally (IP) for five consecutive days. The sublethal tests were evaluated at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.75 mg/kg bw of deltamethrin. An LDso of 1.82 mg/kg was obtained. Blood samples taken per week for 3 weeks showed that deltamethrin caused significant reduction in packed cell volume (PCV) and red blood cell count (RBC). A slight reduction was observed for mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Relative weight of kidney, liver and lungs showed no significant difference from the control. Histopathological analysis of these organs at almost all doses showed necrosis in the liver; haemorrhage, alveolar collapse, interstitial oedema, congestion of blood vessels and pervascular cuffings in the lungs; and multifocal infiltration of interstitium at 1.5 mg/kg bw in the kidney. In the sperm morphology tests, data obtained at the end of exposure duration showed that deltamethrin did not induce a statistically (P>0.05) significant increase in abnormal sperm morphology. These findings provide more information on the potential toxicity of deltamethrin in eukaryotic system. Further studies are required on its safety evaluation especially to non-target organism.
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