STUDY OF GROUNDWATER HYDROCHEMISTRY AND DRINKING APPROPRIATENESS USING WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) MODELLING IN THE JAM RIVER BASIN, INDIAG.D. Mhaske, Resham Bhalla and P.M. Nalawade
The goal of the current study is to use Water Quality Index (WQI) modelling approach to understand the hydro-chemistry of groundwater and its suitability for drinking in the Jam river basin. Sixty samples from dug and bore wells were collected and examined for the 2020 pre and post monsoon seasons by following APHA protocols. In line with BIS, the values of pH, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, NO3, PO4, TH, and TDS exceeded the threshold levels in both seasons. It is observed that TDS level exceeded the desired limit (500 mg/l) in the pre- (75%) and post-monsoon (71.66%) seasons. Additionally, the allowed nitrate levels exceeded in 11.66% (pre-monsoon) and 21.66% (post-monsoon) of the groundwater samples than the limit of the BIS (45 mg/l). The permissible limit (100 mg/l) is surpassed in samples with magnesium contents of 61.66% and 26.66% during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The permissible limit (600 mg/l) was exceeded by the TH content in 71.66% and 15% of the samples during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. In terms of phosphate content, 33.33% and 11.66% of the samples were above the allowable limit (1 mg/l). According to WQI data, 13.33% samples have excellent water quality during post monsoon. 65 and 68.33% of samples have good water quality, 30 and 16.66% have poor water quality, and 5 and 1.66% of samples have very poor water quality during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons. The majority of the groundwaterâs chemical problems are attributable to manmade activities. Groundwater quality is predominantly affected in the north east of the study area, according to a spatial variation map of WQI.