COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON RANIGANJ COALFIELD AREA, INDIA: A REVIEWDibyendu Saha, Jai Prakash Keshri and Nimai Chandra Saha
Raniganj coalfield, one of the crucial mining zones in India in terms of its age and production, mostly extracts coal by surface mining method depending on the under-surface. This paper presents a review on Raniganj coalfields regarding the environment, soil, vegetation, forests, habitat diversity, water quality, water regime, aquatic ecosystems, livelihood and human health. This study shows with the help of various researches that under surface coal mining is susceptible to coal fire and land subsidence while surface mine adversely affects the water, land and ambient air. Both processes are accountable for the life of the local community in the mine adjacent regions. Contrastingly mine excavating, directly and indirectly, enhances the local economy and job opportunities but negatively affects the natural and social behaviour of the local inhabitants. Coal that meets more than 60% of energy in India nevertheless needs technologies for the extraction of coal in a cleaner and more efficient manner.