SEASONAL MICROBIAL VARIATIONS IN STREAM-WATERS FROM SIKKIMAsha Subba, Manoranjan Pandey, Karma G. Dolma, Sangeeta Jha and Ajeya Jha
Availability of clean and safe water is a critical indicator of overall health as well as developmental status. Because of growing population and developing economy safe water availability has come under severe constraints. This is true for, Sikkim, AN east Himalayan State of Sikkim, despite being rich in fresh water. Water quality remains an intensely researched area because of its criticality as also because of its varying impact across time and geography. Microbial contamination in Sikkim is yet to be studied specifically, despite a few existing studies. Historically, the state has experienced a large number of deaths of particularly infants and young children during the monsoon season due to diarrhea, typhoid or other water borne diseases. This study had been undertaken to identify pathogenic micro-organisms in the water streams of the state, particularly near human-habitation. The study concludes that 13 species of microbial species abound the streams of water in Sikkim and which are being used regularly by human inhabitants. Escherichia coli and Kebsiella spp. are found most frequently. The study also reports seasonal variations with monsoon season showing highest microbial contamination and the premonsoon the least. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Citrobacter spp and Enterobacter are prevalent during monsoon season and during post-monsoon phase Salmonella spp, Salmonella spp, Proteus spp and Providencia are more common. There is a strong correlation across seasonal variations and thus it gives prospects to forecast monsoon counts on the basis of premonsoon counts and fow which a regression model has been developed.