Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper

Vol 23, Issue 1, 2021; Page No.(106-118)

DYNAMICS OF HEAVY METALS IN MAIZE CAN BE DETERMINED BY ECTOMYCORRHIZA PISOLITHUS ARHIZUS

TOMA BUBA, MOHAMMAD, ABDULLAHI JALAM AND MUSA IBRAHIM ABUBAKAR

Abstract

The Effects of ectomycorrhiza Pisolithus arhizus on absorption, accumulation, and translocation dynamics of heavy metals in maize seedling were investigated in this study. The result revealed that effects of the mycorrhiza on the concentration of the heavy metals and other nutrient elements in maize seedlings depend on particular heavy metal, plant’s part (root or shoot) and the soil type in which the plant was cultivated. The mycorrhiza greatly increased (α = 0.05) root absorption of Fe, Ni, Mn, Cd, and Cr by maize seedlings but also suppressed absorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn by the root. The result of the Bioconcentration Factor indicated that maize is a hyperaccumulator of Fe (119.8%), Cu (137.0%), Mn (122.5%) and Cd (260%). It is a moderate accumulator of Zn (10.5%%) and Pb (12.8); and low accumulator of Mg (5.0%) and Ni (3.3%). The mycorrhiza increased the hyperaccumulation ability of the maize seedlings for Fe from 119.8% to 722.6%; Mn from 122.5% to 208.8%; and that of Cd from 260% to 430%. Cu accumulation was decreased by the mycorrhiza from hyperaccumulator (137.0%) to moderate accumulator (32.1%). Zn and Pb were decreased from moderate accumulator (10.5% and 12.8%, respectively) to low accumulator (3.6% and 8%, respectively). Ni was also increased from low accumulator (3.3) to moderate accumulator (42.7); while Mg remained low accumulator (from 5.0% to 4.9%). Bioaccumulation of Zn, Mg, and Ni was suppressed by soil amended even in the presence of the mycorrhiza. The mycorrhiza increased the Transfer Factors of Mg, K, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr. While the mycorrhiza decreased the TFs of Fe, N, Ni, and Mn. Also, the amendment of the background soil greatly suppressed the TFs of all the metals except Zn.

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