JAMUN (SYZYGIUM CUMINI L.), AN UNDERUTILIZED FRUIT CROP OF INDIA: AN OVERVIEWEswarappa G. and Somashekar R.K.
Syzygium cumini L.is one of the widely used medicinal plants in the treatment of various diseases particularly on the diabetes. The present review has been primed to compile the existing information on the botany, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and pharmacological applications of Jamun. The leaves are leathery, oblong- ovate to elliptic, 6 to 12 centimetres long. The panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often bearing axillary or terminal and are 4 to 6 centimetres long. It is rich in compounds containing anthocyanins and the seeds contain alkaloids, jambosine, antimellin, which halts the diastic conversion of starch into sugar. The extracts from different parts of Jamun showed significant pharmacological actions. The major part of the fruit is water (80.80%), ash (0.70%), protein (0.81%). sugar (12.70%), acidity (0.63% as sulphuric and 0.88% as malic). Nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized using the leaf and plant extracts of jamun and also used as a potential candidate for bio-remediation and bio-control. Studies should also be undertaken to understand to which of the phytochemicals are responsible for the observed results and their mechanism of action. More attention should be given in popularising this underutilized fruit tree and its integration in the agro-forestry programmes.