FLOWERING PATTERN AND FLORAL ARCHITECTURE OF WILD AND CULTIVATED VARIETIES OF JAMUN (SYZYGIUM CUMINI L.) FOR POLLINATION AND PRODUCTIVITYEswarappa, G. and Somashekar, R.K.
Flowering pattern and phenology of crops are very important in management, productivity and various ecosystem services. Very little is known about the phenology of wild and cultivated varieties of Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.). Four cultivated varieties (GKVK-1, GKVK-2, K-45 and N-20) and two wild varieties at Ponnampet and GKVK locations (wild S. cumini at Ponnampet and wild S. cumini at GKVK) were selected for this study. The initiation of inflorescence from inter nodal region of tagged branches of Syzygium cumini variety GKVK -1 was observed during 2nd week of January followed by GKVK-2, wild S. cumini at Ponnampet and wild S. cumini at GKVK, Bengaluru during 3rd week of January and in K-45, N-20 during 4th week of January 2018. The number of days required from initiation of inflorescence to first flower opening ranged from 40Â±0.82 (K-45) to 46Â±0.82 (wild S. cumini at Ponnampet). The initiation of flowering, 50 and 100 per cent flowering was observed in the 1st, 3rdand 4th week of March respectively in all cultivated varieties (GKVK-1, GKVK-2, K-45 and N-20) and wild S.cumini at Ponnampet, wild S. cumini at GKVK with the exception of variety GKVK-1. The flower opening pattern of wild and cultivated varieties of S.cumini was clearly indicated that once, the opening floral buds started in an inflorescence, it is continued upto upto six days in wild S. cumini at GKVK, K-45, N-20 varieties and up to seven days in wild S. cumini at Ponnampet, GKVK-1 and GKVK-2 varieties. These findings revealed as taggered pattern of flower opening in S. cumini inflorescence for the period of one week. There are eight ovules per flower were observed with longevity of flower lasting for three days and the wilting of flower and dropping of stamens were observed at 4th day after flower opening. The floral architectural differences especially, the difference in the length of stamen and carpel and also the extension of stigma out of the stamens indicated the need of cross pollination by external agents for proper fruit set and fruit yield.