ROLE OF GEOGRAPHY IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE STATE INDICATORS AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENTIsraa Talal Dawood and Ayad Ayid Wali
This paper shows that there are many paths via which geography has shaped the indicators of the state as well as human development and the formation of institutions, conflicts, and political systems. Yet, considering the fact that geography is one of the only elements that is an exogenous variable par excellence, it is quite striking that macroeconomics and political economy have not focused more intensely on its effects. This could change soon: with the further reduction of transportation costs (leading also to increasing costs of saturation, and to congestion), we could face the greater effects of geography on our economic and political systems. Therefore greater scrutiny on this exogenous variable will become necessary. However, to characterize geography as an exogenous element may not hold anymore in the near future. Indeed, the new environmental economics emphasize that economic and political decisions influence our climate, our oceans, and Earthâs topography; geography becomes affected by economic and political systems. As a result, geography will no longer be exogenous: geography affects political regimes, which, in turn, affects geography. The research explains the role of geography in the vital building of State through several ideas that can benefit us in illustrating the importance of geography and what it practices with its important potentialities in drawing the positive competitive image of the State in the place, as well as the potentialities of earth States even if these States do not enjoy clear natural potentialities, yet they can invest the creative minds in their societies in order to build an economy that promotes their significance and competition among the world States and gives them a political and technical power. Also, the research shows the role of geography in practicing the generation of an environmental relation as a connecting link between the State administration in terms of its entire natural resources on the one hand and building human and increasing his/her efficiency and effectiveness on the other hand. The research also reveals the contribution of geography to the construction of the Stateâs institutions across its various specializations, and now its methods and approaches need modernization and innovation to suit the labor market so that its outputs work in different sectors, as well as it will be able to administer and manage the tasks available to them at the environmental aspect and its related resources and fortunes over and inside the earth.